Thursday, July 11, 2024

Unraveling the Labyrinth: Literary Connections from Theseus to Borges

Luis Borges, one of the profoundly influence literary giants of the 20th century, captivated readers with his philosophical depth, metaphysical explorations, erudition and innovative storytelling. Among the many recurring themes in his work, the labyrinth stands out, so much so that one of his seminal collections is aptly titled Labyrinths: Selected Stories & Other Writings.

The labyrinth, a symbol steeped in antiquity, has fascinated writers for centuries. In Greek mythology, Theseus embarks on a perilous journey through the labyrinth to slay the Minotaur, a creature that is part man and part bull. (For a fresh and entertaining retelling, consider André Gide's Two Legends: Oedipus and Theseus.)


Miguel de Cervantes, in his timeless masterpiece Don Quixote, employs the labyrinth as a metaphor for the mind. The valiant yet deluded knight errant navigates through a maze of his own making, lost in the labyrinth of his fantasies and delusions—a metaphor that resonates with us even today. Cervantes writes, "When life itself seems lunatic, who knows where madness lies? Perhaps to be too practical is madness. To surrender dreams—this may be madness. To seek treasure where there is only trash."


Our own lives often mirror labyrinths. We wander through the corridors of existence, seeking an elusive end, hoping each path we take leads to treasure rather than a dead end. This sentiment echoes Borges' view: "Life itself is a labyrinth, we are forever lost within it."


The advent of the World Wide Web in the early 1990s introduced a new kind of labyrinth. I recognized the similarity in my first encounter in 1994. We traverse from page to page, sometimes losing ourselves in the vast expanse of information, hoping to unearth treasures amidst the digital maze. The web, much like the mythical labyrinths of old, can be a place of discovery or a confounding tangle of endless paths.


In the words of Borges: "I thought of a labyrinth of labyrinths, of one sinuous spreading labyrinth that would encompass the past and the future and in some way involve the stars." This encapsulates the endless allure and mystery of labyrinths, both in literature and in life.


The labyrinth, whether in ancient myths, classic literature, or our modern digital age, remains a powerful symbol of our quest for understanding, our struggles, and our journey through the unknown.


* * * 

For more on Borges, here is page of links to a half dozen blog posts under the heading Jorge Luis Borges: An Introduction

Wednesday, July 10, 2024

Things People Don't Realize About Wind Energy and Why We Can't Shut Down Oil Production

Creative Commons. © Hans Hillewaert
When the Biden administration recently approved the proposed Atlantic Shores offshore wind farm in New Jersey, the Sierra Club rejoiced. While many who long for the elimination of fossil fuels are celebrating, it might be useful to learn more about the role oil plays with regard to the ever expanding wind turbine push.

Few people realize how much fossil fuels are required to get electricity from wind. When we look at wind turbines, those towering giants you see on wind farms, we're looking into the face of green energy. But here's the twist: while they capture wind, a totally free and eco-friendly resource, the turbines themselves are actually built and maintained using fossil fuels.


Until I read Vaclav Smil's Numbers Don't Lie, I had no idea of the degree to which fossil fuels are needed to manufacture a single wind tower, even though I was involved in the wind business to a certain extent. (AMSOIL makes gear lubes for these wind-driven power plants)


Here's an excerpt from Smil's book.

 

Large trucks bring steel, and other raw materials to the site, earth-moving equipment beats the path to otherwise inaccessible high ground, large cranes erect the structures – and all these machines burn diesel fuel. So do the freight trains and cargo ships that convey the materials needed for the production of cement, steel, and plastics. For a 5 MW turbine, the steel alone averages 150 tons for the reinforced concrete foundations, 250 tons for the rotor hubs and nacelles (which house the gearbox and generator) and 500 tons for the towers.


If wind generated electricity were to supply 25% of global demand by 2030, then even with a high average capacity factor of 35% the aggregate installed wind power of about 2.5 terawatts would require roughly 450,000,000 tons of steel. And that’s without counting the metal for towers, wires, and transformers for the new high voltage transmission lines that would be needed to connect it all to the grid.


Making steel also takes a ton of energy, Smil writes. It starts with sintered or pelletized iron ore that gets smelted in blast furnaces filled with coke made from coal. They also add powdered coal and natural gas to the mix. The pig iron produced in these blast furnaces is then decarbonized in basic oxygen furnaces. After that, the steel goes through continuous casting, which shapes the molten steel into rough forms of the final product. For turbine construction, the steel used typically contains about 35 gigajoules of energy per ton.

 

To make the steel required for the wind turbines we want by 2030, Smil writes, you need fossil fuels equivalent to more than 600 million tons of coal. 


This is before we consider the 60-meter long airfoils, each of which weighs 15 tons. Making these giant blades also requires hydrocarbons--liquefied petroleum, gas or natural gas.


That's not all. Smil adds still more including the cost of fiber-reinforced composite material, water-proofing with resins, rotors and the gearbox itself. Then you have the lubricants for those gearboxes, which must be changed from time to time like the oil change on your typical car or truck, albeit not as often but on a very large scale.


Undoubtedly, and lastly, Smil suggests that a new wind turbine will generate as much energy as it took to produce it, but it will be in the form of intermittent energy production. (i.e. the turbines turn only when the wind blows.)


Generating electricity – installation, production and maintenance -- remain critically dependent on specific fossil energies. Moreover, most of these energies -- coke for iron ore smelting; coal and petroleum coke to fuel cement kilns; naphtha and natural gas as feedstock and fuel for synthesis of plastics and the making of fiberglass; diesel fuel for ships, trucks, and construction machinery; lubricant for gearboxes – we have no non-fossil substitutes readily available on the requisite large commercial scale.


Smil sumsup his chapter thus: For a long time to come – until all energy that is used to produce wind turbines and photovoltaic cells comes from renewable energy sources – modern civilization will be fundamentally dependent on fossil fuels.


* * *

See: Made in the USA: The Rise and Retreat of American Manufacturing Is A Humbling Warning

Tuesday, July 9, 2024

Analyzing Bob Dylan's "Changing of the Guards" Using ChatGPT

Of Bob Dylan's most enigmatic songs, "Changing of the Guards" is on the short list. It has also been one of my personal favorites from Dylan's extensive catalog, a surreal powderkeg of dynamic images, strong emotions and elusive meanings. Despite years of listening to and reflecting on this opening track from Street-Legal, the song's interpretation has been a perpetual challenge as Dylan draws inspiration from a blend of sources including the Bible, Greek Mythology, the Tarot, history and his own swirling subconscious inner turbulence.

The other night I decided to feed each stanza into ChatGPT to see what an AI would extract from this song. (EdNote: Although the lyrics are from BobDylan.com they do not always match the final recording on the album.)

Methodology: For starters I asked for a brief overview of the song as a whole. Then I entered each individual stanza with this prompt: "Write 200-300 words about this stanza from Bob Dylan's "Changing of the Guards."

Overview

The melody and music of Bob Dylan's "Changing of the Guards" from his 1978 album Street-Legal showcase a distinctive and layered arrangement that complements the song's rich lyrical content. The track is marked by its dynamic and upbeat tempo, driven by a robust rhythm section featuring prominent drums and bass. Horns and saxophones add a soulful, almost celebratory feel, creating a lush, orchestral sound that contrasts with the often cryptic and introspective lyrics.

Dylan's vocal delivery is passionate and slightly rough, lending an emotional depth and authenticity to the narrative. The use of background singers provides a gospel-like harmony, enhancing the song's grandeur and emphasizing its themes of change and transformation. The interplay between the instrumentation and Dylan's vocals creates a sense of urgency and movement, mirroring the song's exploration of transition and renewal. Overall, the melody and music of "Changing of the Guards" blend rock, soul, and folk elements, crafting a powerful and evocative soundscape that enriches the lyrical journey.

Changing of the Guards 
WRITTEN BY: BOB DYLAN

Sixteen years

Sixteen banners united over the field

Where the good shepherd grieves

Desperate men, desperate women divided

Spreading their wings ’neath the falling leaves


The first stanza of Bob Dylan's "Changing of the Guards" from his 1978 album Street-Legal is rich with imagery and symbolism, setting the tone for the song’s themes of transition, loss, and renewal.


"Sixteen years / Sixteen banners united over the field" suggests a period of time marked by unity and purpose. The number sixteen can imply a significant span of life or a pivotal moment in a larger cycle. The "banners" symbolize factions, ideals, or identities that have come together, hinting at a moment of harmony or collective endeavor.


"Where the good shepherd grieves" introduces a contrasting image of sorrow amidst this unity. The "good shepherd," a figure often representing guidance, care, and protection, mourns over something lost or changing. This line evokes a sense of lament for past certainties or lost guidance, reflecting the emotional weight of the transition.


"Desperate men, desperate women divided" highlights the human cost of this change. The repetition of "desperate" emphasizes their struggle and urgency, while "divided" underscores the fragmentation and discord among people who are no longer united by their banners. This division contrasts sharply with the earlier unity, indicating turmoil and strife.


"Spreading their wings ’neath the falling leaves" combines a sense of potential and decay. The act of spreading wings suggests readiness to move on or seek new opportunities, but it occurs "’neath the falling leaves," an autumnal image symbolizing decline and the end of a cycle. This juxtaposition of new beginnings against a backdrop of endings captures the complex, bittersweet nature of transitions.


Overall, the stanza encapsulates themes of change, loss, and the uncertain hope that accompanies new beginnings, weaving a narrative of transformation that is both personal and universal.


Fortune calls

I stepped forth from the shadows, to the marketplace

Merchants and thieves, hungry for power, my last deal gone down

She’s smelling sweet like the meadows where she was born

On midsummer’s eve, near the tower


The second stanza of Bob Dylan's "Changing of the Guards" presents a vivid scene rich with metaphor and narrative complexity, exploring themes of destiny, commerce, and a touch of romantic imagery.

"Fortune calls / I stepped forth from the shadows, to the marketplace" suggests a pivotal moment where the narrator answers a call to action, moving from obscurity into a place of commerce and public life. The "marketplace" symbolizes a world driven by trade, ambition, and the pursuit of power, a place where fortunes can be made or lost.

"Merchants and thieves, hungry for power, my last deal gone down" paints a picture of a cutthroat environment where the lines between legitimate business and criminality blur. The merchants and thieves represent the spectrum of human ambition and greed, all vying for influence and control. The mention of the narrator's "last deal gone down" indicates a recent significant event, possibly a loss or a moment of change that propels the narrator into this new phase.

"She’s smelling sweet like the meadows where she was born" introduces a contrasting, almost idyllic image of a woman. Her sweetness and the meadow imagery evoke purity and a connection to nature, standing in stark contrast to the harshness of the marketplace. This line adds a layer of nostalgia and longing, hinting at an idealized past or a lost innocence.


"On midsummer’s eve, near the tower" further enriches the imagery with references to a specific time and place. Midsummer's Eve, often associated with magic and transformation, suggests a moment of enchantment or significant change. The "tower" might symbolize aspiration, isolation, or a place of observation, adding a sense of mystery and height to the narrative.


In sum, the second stanza of "Changing of the Guard" weaves together themes of fortune, commerce, and romantic idealism, capturing the tension between worldly ambitions and more innocent, idyllic aspirations. The narrator's journey from the shadows to the marketplace suggests a quest for meaning and success amid a world filled with both opportunity and treachery.


The cold-blooded moon

The captain waits above the celebration

Sending his thoughts to a beloved maid

Whose ebony face is beyond communication

The captain is down but still believing that his love will be repaid


The third stanza of Bob Dylan's "Changing of the Guards" delves into themes of distance, longing, and unwavering hope, wrapped in poetic and evocative imagery.


"The cold-blooded moon" sets a stark, almost foreboding tone. The moon, often associated with romance and mystery, here is described as "cold-blooded," suggesting a lack of warmth or compassion. It casts a detached light on the events below, perhaps indicating a sense of inevitability or fate that is indifferent to human emotions.


"The captain waits above the celebration" places the central figure, the captain, in a position of isolation despite being near a scene of joy. This contrast highlights his separation from the surrounding festivity, underscoring his solitary state of mind.


"Sending his thoughts to a beloved maid / Whose ebony face is beyond communication" introduces a poignant element of unfulfilled love. The captain’s beloved, with her "ebony face," is described as being beyond communication, suggesting physical distance, death, or an insurmountable barrier. This separation adds a layer of sorrow and yearning to the captain’s vigil.


"The captain is down but still believing that his love will be repaid" encapsulates the theme of hope against despair. Despite his current state of despondency ("the captain is down"), he clings to the belief that his love and devotion will ultimately be reciprocated. This faith in the face of adversity reflects a deep, almost idealistic commitment to his feelings and hopes.


In summary, the third stanza of "Changing of the Guards" portrays a character enduring emotional isolation and unfulfilled love while maintaining hope. The imagery of the cold moon, the celebration, and the distant beloved creates a rich tapestry of emotions, highlighting the captain’s internal struggle and steadfast belief in the power of love.


They shaved her head

She was torn between Jupiter and Apollo

A messenger arrived with a black nightingale

I seen her on the stairs and I couldn’t help but follow

Follow her down past the fountain where they lifted her veil


The fourth stanza of Bob Dylan's "Changing of the Guards" continues the song's rich tapestry of imagery and themes, focusing on transformation, conflict, and pursuit.


"They shaved her head" signifies a radical change or loss of identity. Shaving one’s head can symbolize various things, including punishment, purification, or a new beginning. This stark image sets the stage for the internal and external conflicts that follow.


"She was torn between Jupiter and Apollo" evokes classical mythology, presenting a struggle between two powerful deities. Jupiter, the king of gods, symbolizes authority, law, and power, while Apollo represents art, music, and prophecy. This conflict suggests a dichotomy between different aspects of life or values, perhaps reflecting the woman's internal turmoil or the broader theme of choices and influences.


"A messenger arrived with a black nightingale" introduces an element of mystery and symbolism. The nightingale, traditionally a symbol of poetic inspiration and love, being black, implies something dark or ominous. The messenger's arrival could signify a pivotal moment or a revelation, adding to the sense of an unfolding drama.


"I seen her on the stairs and I couldn’t help but follow" conveys an irresistible attraction or compulsion. The narrator's immediate reaction to follow the woman suggests a deep connection or fascination, hinting at an important relationship or quest.


"Follow her down past the fountain where they lifted her veil" continues the theme of unveiling and discovery. The fountain, often a symbol of life and purity, contrasts with the earlier darker imagery, suggesting a moment of revelation or truth. Lifting her veil implies uncovering hidden aspects, revealing her true self or secrets previously concealed.


In summary, the fourth stanza of "Changing of the Guard" portrays themes of transformation, internal conflict, and pursuit. The vivid imagery of the woman’s head being shaved, her mythological conflict, the mysterious messenger, and the act of following and unveiling enriches the narrative, capturing the tension between change, discovery, and the search for meaning.


I stumbled to my feet

I rode past destruction in the ditches

With the stitches still mending ’neath a heart-shaped tattoo

Renegade priests and treacherous young witches

Were handing out the flowers that I’d given to you


The fifth stanza of Bob Dylan's "Changing of the Guards" paints a vivid picture of recovery, destruction, and betrayal, interwoven with symbolic imagery and a sense of disillusionment.


"I stumbled to my feet" suggests a moment of struggle and resilience. The narrator is regaining his footing after a fall, symbolizing a personal recovery or a renewed determination to move forward despite previous hardships.


"I rode past destruction in the ditches" evokes a scene of desolation and chaos. The "destruction in the ditches" could symbolize the aftermath of conflict, both literal and metaphorical, highlighting the devastation the narrator has witnessed or experienced. This imagery underscores the harsh reality surrounding the narrator’s journey.


"With the stitches still mending ’neath a heart-shaped tattoo" introduces a personal element of healing. The "stitches" represent recent wounds or emotional scars that are still in the process of healing. The "heart-shaped tattoo" symbolizes love, affection, or a significant relationship. Together, these lines suggest that the narrator carries both the physical and emotional marks of past experiences.


"Renegade priests and treacherous young witches" conjures images of figures who have strayed from conventional paths, embodying rebellion and deceit. These characters add a sense of unpredictability and danger to the narrative, representing forces that challenge or undermine established norms and trust.


"Were handing out the flowers that I’d given to you" introduces a sense of betrayal and loss. The flowers, often symbols of love and care, have been redistributed by untrustworthy figures. This act implies that something once personal and cherished has been taken and misused, deepening the narrator's sense of disillusionment.


In summary, the fifth stanza of "Changing of the Guards" reflects themes of recovery, destruction, and betrayal. The narrator's journey through a landscape of chaos and deceit, marked by personal scars and emotional wounds, captures the complexity of navigating a world where trust is fragile and recovery is ongoing. The symbolic imagery of the heart-shaped tattoo and the redistributing of flowers emphasizes the intertwined nature of love, loss, and resilience.


The palace of mirrors

Where dog soldiers are reflected

The endless road and the wailing of chimes

The empty rooms where her memory is protected

Where the angels’ voices whisper to the souls of previous times


The sixth stanza of Bob Dylan's "Changing of the Guards" delves into themes of reflection, memory, and the passage of time, using vivid and evocative imagery to convey a sense of loss and introspection.


"The palace of mirrors" sets the scene with a metaphorical structure where reflections and illusions dominate. A palace made of mirrors suggests a place where reality is fragmented and perceptions are constantly shifting. It symbolizes introspection, self-examination, and perhaps the elusive nature of truth.


"Where dog soldiers are reflected" introduces a specific image within this reflective palace. "Dog soldiers" could refer to fierce, loyal warriors, potentially from Native American tribes, known for their bravery and defense. Their reflection in the mirrors might symbolize the lingering presence of past battles, conflicts, or the enduring spirit of resistance and loyalty.


"The endless road and the wailing of chimes" evoke a sense of an ongoing journey and haunting sounds. The "endless road" suggests a path that stretches indefinitely, representing life's journey or a quest without a clear endpoint. The "wailing of chimes" adds an eerie, mournful atmosphere, possibly symbolizing the passage of time or lost opportunities.


"The empty rooms where her memory is protected" introduces a poignant image of preservation. These empty rooms symbolize spaces within the mind or heart where memories of a significant person are kept safe. The emptiness of the rooms highlights the absence of the person, creating a sense of loneliness and reverence for the past.


"Where the angels’ voices whisper to the souls of previous times" adds a spiritual dimension to the stanza. The whispers of angels suggest communication with the past, an ethereal connection to those who have gone before. This line underscores the theme of memory and the enduring influence of the past on the present.


In summary, the sixth stanza of "Changing of the Guards" explores deep themes of reflection, memory, and the passage of time. Through the imagery of a mirrored palace, the reflections of dog soldiers, an endless road, and empty rooms, Dylan conveys a sense of introspection and the haunting persistence of the past. The whispers of angels to the souls of previous times emphasize the spiritual and timeless nature of these memories, adding a layer of reverence and continuity to the narrative.


She wakes him up

Forty-eight hours later, the sun is breaking

Near broken chains, mountain laurel and rolling rocks

She’s begging to know what measures he now will be taking

He’s pulling her down and she’s clutching on to his long golden locks


The seventh stanza of Bob Dylan's "Changing of the Guard" portrays a vivid scene of awakening, urgency, and a complex dynamic between two characters, imbued with rich symbolism and emotion.


"She wakes him up / Forty-eight hours later, the sun is breaking" begins with a moment of awakening after a prolonged period. The "forty-eight hours" implies a significant lapse of time, suggesting that something momentous has occurred during this interval. The breaking sun symbolizes a new beginning or a revelation, casting light on what was previously in darkness.


"Near broken chains, mountain laurel and rolling rocks" sets a detailed and evocative scene. The "broken chains" signify liberation or escape from bondage, hinting at past struggles or constraints that have now been overcome. "Mountain laurel," a beautiful yet resilient plant, symbolizes perseverance and the beauty found in strength. "Rolling rocks" evoke a sense of movement and change, suggesting that the landscape is dynamic and shifting.


"She’s begging to know what measures he now will be taking" reveals a moment of urgency and anticipation. The woman's plea indicates her desire for clarity and action in response to the recent changes. Her desperation reflects the high stakes and the uncertainty of their situation, emphasizing the need for decisive steps.


"He’s pulling her down and she’s clutching on to his long golden locks" introduces a physical and emotional struggle between the two characters. His action of pulling her down suggests dominance or an attempt to ground her, while her clutching his "long golden locks" signifies a deep connection and perhaps a desire to hold on to something familiar and comforting. The "golden locks" can symbolize youth, vitality, and an idealized past, adding a layer of nostalgia and longing to the scene.


In summary, the seventh stanza of "Changing of the Guards" captures a moment of awakening and urgency, set against a backdrop of liberation and natural beauty. The dynamic between the characters, marked by desperation and physical connection, highlights themes of struggle, change, and the quest for direction in a world that is constantly in flux. The detailed imagery and emotional intensity of the stanza enrich the narrative, deepening the listener's engagement with the song's unfolding story.


Gentlemen, he said

I don’t need your organization, I’ve shined your shoes

I’ve moved your mountains and marked your cards

But Eden is burning, either brace yourself for elimination

Or else your hearts must have the courage for the changing of the guards


This stanza from Bob Dylan's "Changing of the Guards" conveys themes of defiance, critique of authority, and a call for courageous transformation, using powerful and evocative language to articulate a pivotal message.


"Gentlemen, he said / I don’t need your organization" begins with a direct address to a group in power. The use of "Gentlemen" indicates a formal or authoritative assembly, possibly symbolizing established systems or institutions. The narrator's declaration of independence from this "organization" asserts his autonomy and rejection of their control or influence.


"I’ve shined your shoes / I’ve moved your mountains and marked your cards" outlines the narrator's past subservience and significant contributions. "Shined your shoes" suggests menial, servile tasks, while "moved your mountains" and "marked your cards" indicate considerable efforts to achieve their goals and facilitate their endeavors. This line emphasizes the narrator's experience and disillusionment with being used for the benefit of the powerful.


"But Eden is burning, either brace yourself for elimination" introduces a sense of urgency and crisis. "Eden" represents an ideal state or paradise, and its burning signifies the loss or destruction of that ideal. This imagery suggests a world in turmoil, on the brink of collapse. The phrase "brace yourself for elimination" warns of impending doom if change is not embraced, highlighting the high stakes involved.

"Or else your hearts must have the courage for the changing of the guards" concludes with a call to action. 


The "changing of the guards" symbolizes a significant shift in power or structure, requiring bravery and resolve. This line urges those in power to find the courage to adapt and accept this transformation, suggesting that renewal and survival depend on their willingness to embrace change.


In summary, this stanza of "Changing of the Guards" delivers a powerful message of defiance against established authority, acknowledging past sacrifices, and highlighting an urgent need for courageous transformation. Through vivid imagery and direct language, Dylan critiques those in power and calls for a brave response to a world on the verge of significant change.

 

Peace will come

With tranquillity and splendor on the wheels of fire

But will bring us no reward when her false idols fall

And cruel death surrenders with its pale ghost retreating

Between the King and the Queen of Swords

Copyright © 1978 by Special Rider Music


The final stanza of Bob Dylan's "Changing of the Guards" culminates with a poetic and enigmatic reflection on the themes of peace, transformation, and the inevitable passage of time, framed within vivid and symbolic imagery.


"Peace will come / With tranquillity and splendor on the wheels of fire" opens with a hopeful proclamation of peace. The imagery of "wheels of fire" suggests a powerful and transformative force propelling this peace, imbuing the concept with a sense of urgency and inevitability. "Tranquillity and splendor" evoke a state of serene beauty and harmony, contrasting with the turmoil and conflict that preceded it.


"But will bring us no reward when her false idols fall" introduces a cautionary note amidst the promise of peace. The falling of "false idols" symbolizes the collapse of illusions and misplaced priorities. This line suggests that achieving true peace requires letting go of superficial or misguided pursuits, acknowledging that true fulfillment cannot be attained through material or ephemeral gains.


"And cruel death surrenders with its pale ghost retreating" evokes imagery of mortality and transcendence. "Cruel death" personifies mortality as a relentless adversary, whose "pale ghost retreating" implies a momentary withdrawal or defeat. This imagery suggests a fleeting victory over mortality, hinting at themes of resilience and spiritual triumph.


"Between the King and the Queen of Swords" concludes with a reference to tarot symbolism. The "King and the Queen of Swords" represent figures of intellect, clarity, and decisive action. Their presence underscores the need for wisdom and discernment in navigating the complexities of life and achieving lasting peace.


In summary, the final stanza of "Changing of the Guards" intertwines themes of hope, disillusionment, and spiritual transcendence. Through evocative imagery and

 symbolic references, Dylan invites reflection on the nature of peace, the consequences of false idols, and the eternal struggle against mortality, culminating in a poetic meditation on the human condition and the pursuit of enduring truth.


* * * * * 

Related

My brief 2010 comments about this song:
Dylan, Ambiguity & Changing of the Guards

Popular Posts